Friday, November 11, 2011

Xbox >Xbox 360 Kinect Xbox LIVE Arcade Marketplace xbox 360 cheats xbox 360 vs ps3 xbox 360 mods xbox 360 best buy xbox 360 hacks used xbox 360 halo 3 eb games

xbox 360 cheats xbox 360 vs ps3 xbox 360 mods xbox 360 best buy
xbox 360 hacks used xbox 360 halo 3 eb games
Manufacturer     Microsoft
Type     Video game console
Generation     Sixth generation era
First available     North America November 15, 2001,
Japan February 22, 2002
Europe/Australia March 14, 2002
CPU     733 MHz Intel Pentium III
Media     DVD, CD
System storage     8-10GB Internal HDD, memory card
Online service     Xbox Live
Units sold     24 million
Top-selling game     Halo 2
Successor     Xbox 360
    Microsoft Portal

See also: Xbox 360

The Xbox is a sixth generation era video game console produced by Microsoft Corporation. It was first released on November 15, 2001 in North America, February 22, 2002 in Japan, and on March 14, 2002 in Europe and Australasia. It is the predecessor to Microsoft's Xbox 360 console. The Xbox was Microsoft's first independent venture into the video game console arena, after having collaborated with Sega in porting Windows CE to the Sega Dreamcast console. Notable launch titles for the console included Amped: Freestyle Snowboarding, Dead or Alive 3, Project Gotham Racing, and Oddworld: Munch's Oddysee.

    * 1 History
          o 1.1 Development
          o 1.2 Software
          o 1.3 Xbox Live
    * 2 Hardware
          o 2.1 Detailed specifications
          o 2.2 Xbox and DirectX
          o 2.3 Microsoft and Nvidia chip pricing dispute
    * 3 Official accessories
          o 3.1 Audio/video connectors
          o 3.2 Networking
          o 3.3 Multimedia
          o 3.4 Controllers and removable storage
    * 4 Modding the Xbox
    * 5 Price History
    * 6 Xbox 360
    * 7 References
    * 8 External links



The Xbox was initially developed within Microsoft by a small team which included Seamus Blackley, a game developer and high-energy physicist. The rumors of a video game console being developed by Microsoft first emerged at the end of 1999 following interviews of Bill Gates. Gates said that a gaming/multimedia device was essential for multimedia convergence in the new times of digital entertainment. On March 10, 2000 the "X-box Project" was officially confirmed by Microsoft with a press release.

According to the book Smartbomb, by Heather Chaplin and Aaron Ruby, the remarkable success of the upstart Sony Playstation worried Microsoft in late 1990s. The growing video game market seemed to threaten the PC market which Microsoft had dominated and relied upon for most of its revenues. Additionally, a venture into the gaming console market would also diversify Microsoft's product line, which up to that time had been heavily concentrated into software.

According to Dean Takahashi's book, "Opening the Xbox", the Xbox was originally going to be called DirectX-box, to show the extensive use of DirectX within the console's technology[1]. "Xbox" was the final name decided by marketing, but the console still retains some hints towards DirectX, most notably the "X"-shaped logo, which DirectX is famous for, along with the "X" shape on the top of the system.

The system has been discontinued as of 11.13.06

As time progressed Microsoft's J Allard was responsible for the hardware and system software development. Ed Fries was responsible for all game development on the platform. Mitch Koch was responsible for sales and marketing and all three reported to Robbie Bach. This team was also primarily responsible for Microsoft's follow-up product, the Xbox 360.


List of Xbox games

The Xbox launched in North America on November 15, 2001. The greatest success of the Xbox's launch games was Halo: Combat Evolved which was critically well received[1] and was the best-selling xbox game of the year for 4 years running. Halo still remains one of the console's standout titles, while its sequel Halo 2 became the best-selling title of the console and enjoyed a long reign as the most played game on the Xbox Live service until November 13, 2006 when the hit Xbox 360 title Gears of War claimed the top spot. Other successful launch titles included NFL Fever 2002, Project Gotham Racing[2] and Dead or Alive 3 [3]). However, the failure of several first-party games (including Fuzion Frenzy [4] and Azurik: Rise of Perathia [5]) damaged the initial public reputation of the Xbox.
Halo: Combat Evolved proved to be a great success for the Game Industry and Microsoft Game Studios.
Halo: Combat Evolved proved to be a great success for the Game Industry and Microsoft Game Studios.

Although the console enjoyed strong third party support from its inception, many early Xbox games did not take full advantage of its powerful hardware, with few additional features or graphical improvements to distinguish them from the PS2 version, thus negating one of the Xbox's main selling points. Lastly, Sony countered the Xbox for a short time by temporarily securing PlayStation 2 exclusives for highly anticipated games such as the Grand Theft Auto series and Metal Gear Solid 2: Substance although they were later ported to the Xbox and no longer exclusive.

In 2002 and 2003, several releases helped the Xbox to gain momentum and distinguish itself from the PS2. The Xbox Live online service was launched in late 2002 alongside pilot titles MotoGP, MechAssault and Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon. Several best-selling and critically acclaimed titles for the Xbox were published, such as Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell, Ninja Gaiden and LucasArts' Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic. Take-Two Interactive's exclusivity deal with Sony was amended to allow Grand Theft Auto III, Grand Theft Auto: Vice City and its sequels to be published on the Xbox. In addition, many other publishers got into the trend of releasing the Xbox version alongside the PS2 version, instead of delaying it for months.

In 2004, Halo 2 set records as the highest-grossing release in entertainment history making over $100 million in its first day[6], as well as being a successful killer app for the online service. That year, Microsoft and Electronic Arts reached a deal that would see the latter's popular titles enabled on Xbox Live.
Ninja Gaiden was released in 2004 to much critical acclaim.
Ninja Gaiden was released in 2004 to much critical acclaim.

 Xbox Live

On November 15, 2002, Microsoft launched its Xbox Live online gaming service, allowing subscribers to play online Xbox games with (or against) other subscribers all around the world and download new content for their games to the system's hard drive. This online service works exclusively with a broadband Internet connection. Approximately 250,000 subscribers had signed up within 2 months of Xbox Live's launch [7]. In July 2004, Microsoft announced that Xbox Live had reached 1 million subscribers, and only a year later, in July 2005, that membership had reached 2 million. An Xbox Live Gold subscription (which affords the user the most features of any membership) currently costs US$50 a year (roughly US$4 a month). Recently, competitive leagues have been created, namely playing "Halo 2." Leagues include prizes and sponsorships.

Xbox motherboard with installed modchip
Xbox motherboard with installed modchip
Xbox drives
Xbox drives

    See also: Xbox special limited editions

The Xbox was designed to take advantage of a slowdown in the saturated PC gaming market and incorporates a built-in Ethernet adapter. Also, the console costs as much as a high-end video card alone in 2001, while having comparable graphics processing power (the Xbox's NV2A graphics chipset is a derivative of the GeForce 3). The Xbox was also the only console of its generation to support Dolby Digital 5.1 Nonetheless, most of these features were not fully exploited in its first year of launch, notably the lack of Xbox Live online multiplayer.

The Xbox was the first console to incorporate a hard disk drive, used primarily for storing game saves compressed in zip archives and content downloaded from Xbox Live. This eliminated the need for separate memory cards (although some older consoles, such as the TurboCD and Sega CD had featured built-in battery backup memory prior to this). Most of the games also use the hard drive as a disk cache, for faster game loading times. Some games support "Custom soundtracks," another particularly unusual feature allowed by the hard drive. An Xbox owner can rip music from standard audio CDs to the hard drive so players can play their custom soundtrack, in addition to the original soundtrack of Xbox games that support such a feature.

Although the Xbox is based on commodity PC hardware and runs a stripped-down version of the Windows 2000 kernel using APIs based largely on DirectX 8.1, it incorporates changes optimized for gaming uses as well as restrictions designed to prevent uses not approved by Microsoft. A similar approach (PC hardware, stripped-down Windows) was used by the Tandy VIS entertainment system. The Xbox does not use Windows CE due to Microsoft internal politics at the time, as well as limited support in Windows CE for DirectX[citation needed].

The Xbox itself is much larger and heavier than its contemporaries. This is largely due to a bulky tray-loading DVD-ROM drive and the standard-size 3.5" hard drive. Because of this, the Xbox has found itself a target of mild derision, as gamers poke fun at it for things like a warning in the Xbox manual that a falling Xbox "could cause serious injury" to a small child or pet. However, the Xbox has also pioneered safety features, such as breakaway cables for the controllers to prevent the console from being yanked from the shelf.

The original game controller design, which was particularly large, was similarly often criticized since it was ill-suited to those with small hands. In response to these criticisms, a smaller controller was introduced for the Japanese Xbox launch. This Japanese controller (which was briefly imported by even mainstream video game store chains, such as GameStop) was subsequently released in other markets as the "Xbox Controller S", and currently all Xbox consoles come with a "Controller S", while the original controller (known as Controller "0" or "The Duke") was quietly discontinued.

Several internal hardware revisions have been made in an ongoing battle to discourage modding (hackers continually updated modchip designs in attempt to defeat them), cut manufacturing costs, and to provide a more reliable DVD-ROM drive (some of the early units' drives gave Disc Reading Errors due to the unreliability of the Thomson DVD-ROM drives that were used). Later generation of Xbox units that used the Thomson TGM-600 DVD-ROM drives and the Philips VAD6011 DVD-ROM drives were still vulnerable to failure that rendered the consoles either unable to read newer discs or caused them to halt the console with an error code usually indicating a PIO/DMA identification failure, respectively. These units would not be covered under the extended warranty.

 Detailed specifications

    * CPU: 733 MHz Intel Pentium III Coppermine-based IA-32 CPU. Micro-PGA2 package. 180 nm process.
          o SSE. Floating point SIMD. 4 single-precision floating point numbers per clock cycle.
                + Resulting Gflops on cpu alone: 2.9Gflops
          o MMX. Integer SIMD.
          o 133 MHz 64-bit GTL+ front side bus to GPU/chipset.
          o 32 KiB L1 cache. 128 KiB on-die L2 Advanced Transfer Cache (256-bit bus).
    * Shared memory subsystem
          o 64 MiB DDR SDRAM at 200 MHz. 6.4 GB/s
          o Supplied by Hynix or Samsung depending on manufacture date and location.
    * Graphics processing unit (GPU) and system chipset: 233 MHz NV2A ASIC. Co-developed by Microsoft and NVIDIA.
          o 4 pixel pipelines with 2 texture units each
          o 932 megapixels/second (233 MHz x 4 pipelines), 1,864 megatexels/second (932 MP x 2 texture units) (peak)
                + 115 million vertices/second, 125 million particles/second (peak)
                + Peak triangle performance: around 30,000,000 32 pixel triangles/sec raw or w. 2 textures and lit.
          o 4 textures per pass, texture compression, full scene anti-aliasing (NV Quincunx, supersampling, multisampling)
          o Bilinear, trilinear, and anisotropic texture filtering
          o Similar to the NV20 and NV25 PC GPUs.
    * Storage media
          o 2-5x (2.6 MB/s-6.6 MB/s) CAV DVD-ROM
          o 8 or 10 GB 3.5-inch 5,400 RPM hard disk. Formatted to 8 GB. FATX file system.
          o Optional 8 MB memory card for saved game file transfer.
    * Audio processor : NVIDIA MCPX (a.k.a. SoundStorm NVAPU)
          o 64 3D channels (up to 256 stereo voices)
          o HRTF Sensaura 3D enhancement
          o MIDI DLS2 Support
          o Monaural, Stereo, Dolby Surround, and Dolby Digital Live 5.1 audio output options
    * Integrated 10/100BASE-TX Ethernet
    * DVD movie playback
    * A/V outputs: composite video, S-Video, component video, SCART, Optical Digital TOSLINK, and stereo RCA analog audio.
    * Resolutions: 480i, 576i, 480p, 720p and 1080i.
    * Controller Ports: 4 proprietary USB ports
    * Weight: 3.86 kg (8.5 lb)
    * Dimensions: 320 Å~ 100 Å~ 260 mm (12.5 Å~ 4 Å~ 10.5 in)

 Xbox and DirectX

Microsoft's set of low-level APIs for game development and multimedia purposes, DirectX, was used as a basis for the Xbox.

 Microsoft and Nvidia chip pricing dispute

In 2002, Microsoft and Nvidia entered arbitration over a dispute on the pricing of Nvidia's chips for the Xbox.[2] Nvidia's filing with the SEC indicated that Microsoft was seeking a US$13 million discount on shipments for Nvidia's fiscal year 2002. Additionally, Microsoft alleged violations of the agreement the two companies entered, sought reduced chipset pricing, and sought to ensure that Nvidia fulfill Microsoft's chipset orders without limits on quantity. The matter was settled on February 6, 2003, and no terms of the settlement were released.[3]

 Official accessories

 Audio/video connectors

    * Standard AV Cable: Provides composite video and monaural or stereo audio to TVs equipped with RCA inputs. Comes with the system. European systems come with a RCA jack to SCART converter block in addition to the cable.
    * RF Adapter: Provides a combined audio and video signal on an RF connector.
    * Advanced AV Pack: Provides S-Video and TOSLINK audio in addition to the RCA composite video and stereo audio of the Standard AV Cable.
    * High Definition AV Pack: Intended for HDTVs, it provides a YPrPb component video signal over three RCA connectors. Also provides analog RCA and digital TOSLINK audio outputs.
    * Advanced SCART Cable: The European equivalent to the Advanced AV Pack, providing a full RGB video SCART connection in place of S-Video, RCA composite and stereo audio connections (composite video and stereo are still provided by the cable, through the SCART connector, in addition to the RGB signal), while retaining the TOSLINK audio connector. As Europe has no HDTV standard, no High Definition cable is currently provided in those markets.

Numerous unofficial third-party cables and breakout boxes exist that provide combinations of outputs not found in these official video packages; however, with the exception of a few component-to-VGA converters and custom-built VGA boxes, the four official video packages represent all of the Xbox's possible outputs. This output selectivity is made possible by the Xbox's SCART-like AVIP port.


    * Ethernet (Xbox Live) Cable: A Cat 5 cable for connecting the Xbox to a broadband modem or router.
    * Xbox Wireless Adapter: a wireless bridge which converts data running through an Ethernet cable to a wireless (802.11b or 802.11g) signal to connect to a wireless LAN. While the official Wireless Adapter guarantees compatibility with the Xbox, almost any wireless bridge can be used.
    * Xbox Live Starter Kit: A subscription and installation pack for the Xbox Live service, as well as a headset (with monaural earpiece and microphone) that connects to a control box that plugs into the top expansion slot of a controller. The headset can in fact be replaced with most standard earpiece-and-microphone headsets; headset specialist Plantronics produces various officially-licensed headsets, including a special-edition headset for Halo 2.
    * System Link Cable: A Cat 5 Ethernet crossover cable for connecting together two consoles or a Cat 5 straight through cable used in conjunction with an Ethernet hub for connecting up to four consoles, for up to 16 total players. This functionality is similar to Sega's DirectLink for Sega Saturn.


    * Xbox Media Center Extender: A kit that allows Xbox to act as a Media Center Extender to stream content from a Windows XP Media Center Edition PC. It can also be used for DVD playback.
    * DVD Playback Kit: Required in order to play DVD movies, the kit includes an infrared remote control and receiver. DVD playback was not included as a standard feature of the Xbox due to licensing issues with the DVD format that would have added extra cost to the console's base price. By selling a DVD remote separately, Microsoft was able to bundle the cost of the DVD licensing fee with it. Although there is nothing to prevent the Xbox from acting as a Progressive scan DVD player, Microsoft chose not to enable this feature in the Xbox DVD kit in order to avoid royalty payments to the patent-holder of progressive scan DVD playback. The DVD Playback kit only plays DVD's from the local region. The DVD Playback kit will also allow the xbox to play VCD movies. By default, the Xbox can only play xbox games and audio cd's.
    * Xbox Music Mixer: A utility software bundled with a microphone that connects to an adapter that plugs into the top expansion slot of a controller. Provides a music player with 2D/3D visualizations as well as basic karaoke functions. It also allows users to upload pictures in JPEG format (to create slide shows) as well as audio in MP3 format and Microsoft's WMA (for karaoke or a game's Custom Soundtracks feature) from a Windows XP machine running the Xbox Music Mixer PC Tool.

 Controllers and removable storage
The Duke and Controller S
The Duke and Controller S

The Xbox controller features two analog sticks, a directional pad, two analog triggers, a Back button, a Start button, two accessory slots and six 8-bit analog action buttons (A, B, X, Y, Black, and White). The:

    * "A" Button is colored GREEN
    * "B" Button is colored RED
    * "X" Button is colored BLUE
    * "Y" Button is colored YELLOW

The Black and white colored buttons are recessed in the controller.

    * Standard Xbox Controller (aka "The Duke"[citation needed]): Originally the normal Xbox controller for all territories except Japan, this has since been quietly discontinued and replaced in Xbox packs by the Controller S. The Duke controller has been criticized for being relatively large and bulky compared to other video game controllers (it was awarded "Blunder of the Year" by Game Informer in 2001).[4] The black and white buttons are located above the A, B, X, and Y buttons, and the Back/Start buttons are located between and below the d-pad and right analog stick. Also, the standard face buttons (A, B, X, and Y) were oriented in an oblong parallelogram rather than a uniform diamond, which was very unusual compared to other standard controllers.
    * Controller S: A smaller, lighter Xbox controller. Once the standard Xbox controller in Japan (codenamed "Akebono"), it was released in other territories by popular demand, and eventually replaced the standard controller in the retail pack for the Xbox console. The white and black buttons are located below the A, B, X, and Y buttons, and the Back/Select buttons are similarly placed below the left analog stick. This controller has received its share of criticism as well, especially with regards to placement of the black/white and start/select buttons.[5]

There are also third party controllers such as a Logitech 2.4 GHz wireless controller. This controller is approved by Microsoft. However, third-party unlicensed wireless controllers exist as well.

An 8 MB removable solid state memory card can be plugged into the controllers, onto which game saves (zip archives in reality) can either be copied from the hard drive when in the Xbox Dashboard's memory manager or saved during a game. Note that some recent games (e.g. Ninja Gaiden and Dead or Alive Xtreme Beach Volleyball) do not support this accessory as a cheat prevention measure. This system has been defeated by the Xbox hacking community, who have developed tools to modify savegames to work in a different console, though some unique technical information concerning the recipient Xbox must be known. It is also possible to save an Xbox Live account on a memory unit, making it possible to share it with another Xbox owner, assuming both have access to Xbox Live.

 Modding the Xbox

The popularity of the Xbox inspired efforts to circumvent the built-in hardware and software security mechanisms, a practice informally known as modding. The Xbox BIOS was dumped a few months after release, and hacked so it would skip digital signature checks, and media flags, allowing unsigned code, Xbox game backups, etc to be run. This is due to flaws in the Xbox's security.[8] Modding an Xbox in any manner will void its warranty, as it may require disassembly of the console. Having a modified Xbox will also disallow it from accessing Xbox Live as it contravenes the Xbox Live terms of use[9], unless using a softmod with a multiboot and Shadow C configuration such as Ndure.

Four main methods exist of modding the Xbox:

    * Modchip - Installing a modchip inside the Xbox that bypasses the original BIOS, with a hacked BIOS to circumvent the security mechanisms.[10]
    * TSOP Flashing - Reflashing the TSOP (Thin Small-Outline Package) with a non-Microsoft release, by bridging two points on the motherboard, making it writable, and then using a specially crafted gamesave (Similar to a softmod, see below) to flash the onboard TSOP. This method only works on 1.0 to 1.5 Xboxes, due to changes in motherboard layout.[11]
    * Softmods - Installing alternative software files to the Xbox harddrive. When loaded, they install security circumventions, and are known to be safe for Xbox Live if the user enables multibooting with the Microsoft dashboard and an original game disc is used.[12]
          o Game save exploit - Using select official game releases to load game saves that exploit buffer overflows in the save game handling. [13] When these special game saves are loaded, they access an interface with scripts for installing the necessary softmod files.
          o Hot swap - Using a computer to change the data on the hard drive. This requires having the Xbox unlock the hard drive when it is turned on, then swapping the hard drive into a running computer. From there it can be accessed by a special LiveCD. The user installs the softmod files directly to the Xbox hard drive. This technique has been used extensively to harbor cheating on many online games.

Beyond gaming, a modded Xbox can be used as a media center with the Xbox Media Center.[14]

There are also distributions of Linux developed specifically for the Xbox, including those based on Gentoo [15], Debian (see also Xebian) [16], Damn Small Linux [17], and Dyne:bolic [18].


No comments: